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    String Library Functions (QBASIC)


    The functions which are used to process the numeric data are called mathematical functions. The functions which are used to process the numeric data are called mathematical functions. The functions which are used to process the numeric data are called mathematical functions.

    UCASE$

    It converts string values to uppercase.

    Example:

    CLS
    x$ = "teach school"
    PRINT UCASE$(x$)
    END
    

    Output

    TEACH SCHOOL
    

    LCASE$

    It converts string value to lowercase.

    Example:

    CLS
    x$ = "TEACH SCHOOL"
    PRINT LCASE$(x$)
    END
    

    Output

    teach school
    

    LEFT$

    it extract and return the number of characters from the let of a string.

    Example:

    CLS
    x$ = "computer"
    PRINT LEFT$(x$, 5)
    END
    

    Output

    compu
    

    RIGHT$

    It extract and return the numbers of characters from the right of a string.

    Example:

    CLS
    x$ = "computer"
    PRINT RIGHT$(x$, 4)
    END
    

    Output

    uter
    

    MID$

    It is used to pick up the required strings from the string.

    Example:

    CLS
    a$ = "computer"
    PRINT MID$(a$, 3, 5)
    END
    

    Output

    mpute
    

    LTRIM$

    LRTIM$ is used to remove the spaces from the left of the string and RTRIM$ is used to remove the spaces from the right of the string.

    Example:

    CLS
    a$ = "computer        "
    b$ = "        science"
    PRINT a$ + b$
    PRINT RTRIM$(a$) + LTRIM$(b$)
    END
    

    Output

    computer              science
    computerscience
    

    LEN

    It returns the length of a give string.

    Example:

    CLS
    b$ = "nepal"
    PRINT LEN(b$)
    END
    

    Output

    5
    

    VAL

    If both string are started with number value. This function can perform mathematical calculations among them.

    Example:

    CLS
    a$ = "10 boys"
    b$ = "20 girls"
    total = VAL(a$) + VAL(b$)
    PRINT "Total students = "; total
    END
    

    Output

    Total students = 30
    

    ASC

    It returns ASCII value of a character.

    Example:

    CLS
    x$ = "A"
    PRINT ASC(x$)
    END
    

    Output

    65
    

    Some ASCII value of characters are given below

    Characters ASCII value
    A to Z (Capital letters) 65 to 90
    a to z (Small letters) 97 to 122
    0 to 9 (Numbers) 48 to 57

    CHR$

    It returns character value of a give ASCII code.

    Example:

    CLS
    FOR i = 65 TO 90
    PRINT i; "="; CHR$(i)
    NEXT i
    END
    

    Output

    65 = A
    66 = B
    .
    .
    90 = Z
    

    STR$

    It converts numeric value to string value, which cannot be used for mathematical calculations.

    Example:

    CLS
    a = 50
    b = 20
    PRINT "Before using STR$ : "; a + b
    PRINT "After using STR$ : "; STR$(a) + STR$(b)
    END
    

    Output

    Before using STR$ : 70
    After using STR$ : 50 70
    

    STRING$

    It returns a string of a specified length made up of a repeating character.

    Example:

    CLS
    PRINT STRING$(5, 97)
    END
    

    Output

    aaaaa
    

    SPACE$

    It is used to put blank spaces.

    Example:

    CLS
    PRINT "Class"; SPACE$(6); "Roll.No"
    END
    

    Output

    Class      Roll.NO
    

    TAB

    It is used to put Tab.

    Example:

    CLS
    x$ = "Name"
    y$ = "Address"
    PRINT TAB(5); x$; TAB(10); y$
    END
    

    Output

         Name  Address
    

    DATE$ and TIME$

    DATE$ and TIME$ returns the current date and time respectively.

    Example:

    CLS
    PRINT DATE$
    PRINT TIME$
    END
    

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