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    Operating System Kernel

    The kernel is a fundamental part of a modern comptuer's operating system. In Operating system, the kernel is a computer program that manages input/output requests from software, and translates them into data processing instructions for the central processing unit and other electronic components of a computer. 

    A Kernel is a computer program that is the heart and core of an Operating System. Since the Operating System has control over the system so, the Kernel also has control over everything in the system. It is the most important part of an Operating System. Whenever a system starts, the Kernel is the first program that is loaded after the bootloader because the Kernel has to handle the rest of the thing of the system for the Operating System. The Kernel remains in the memory until the Operating System is shut-down.

    SO Kernel

    The Kernel is responsible for low-level tasks such as disk management, memory management, task management, etc. It provides an interface between the user and the hardware components of the system. When a process makes a request to the Kernel, then it is called System Call.

    The critical code of the kernel is usually loaded into a protected area of memory, which prevents it from being overwritten by other, less frequently used parts of the operating system or by application. 

    The kernel performs its tasks, such as executing processes and handling interrupts, in kernel space, wheres everything a user normally does, such as writing text in a text editor or running programs in a GUI (graphical user interface), is done in user space. When a process makes requests of the kernel, the request is called a system call. 

    Functions of a Kernel

    • Access Comptuer resource
    • Device management
    • Recource management
    • It establish communication between user level application and hardware.
    • It decide state of incoming processes.
    • It control's disk management.
    • It control's memory management.
    • It control's task management.

    Types of Kernel

    Monolithic Kernels

    It provide rich and powerful abstractions of the underlying hardware.


    It provide a small set of simple hardware abstractions and use applications called servers to provide more functionality. 

    Hybrid Kernel

    It is also called modified microkernels. Hybrid kernels are much like pure microkernels, except that they include some additional code in kernel space to increase performance. 


    It provide minimal abstractions, allowing low-level hardware access. In exokernel systems, library operating systems provide the abstractions typically present in monolithic kernels.